Last modification: 2024/01/15

This is a glossary of a number of special words and medical terms used by this information service.

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blood vessel that carries the blood circulating in the body to the lungs and heart. the veins of the bodys circulation carry oxygen-depleted blood from the organs to the lungs and heart; the veins of the pulmonary circulation transports oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart.

ventriculo-peritoneal shunt
shunt (= tubing system with valve) for draining excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the cerebrospinal fluid chambers (cerebral ventricles) into the abdominal cavity (peritoneum)
Example / Relevance Pediatrics: It is used for the treatment of hydrocephalus, e.g. as a result of a brain tumour.

neurosurgical procedure to restore cerebrospinal fluid flow, e.g. in patients with hydrocephalus; in this process, a controlled artificial connection is endoscopically created at the bottom of the third cerebral ventricle to the outside of the spinal canal, thereby enabling the drainage of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the brain into the spinal canal.
Example / Relevance Pediatrics: A ventriculostomy can replace the placement of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in patients with certain brain tumours or other causes of increased pressure in the brain, as long as certain preconditions regarding the cerebrospinal fluid flow are met (these are assessed by the neurosurgeon and the neuroradiologist using magnetic resonance imaging).

viruses are infectious particles that do not have their own metabolism and therefore depend on host cells for their reproduction, on which they often have a pathogenic effect.
Example / Relevance Pediatrics: infections with viruses (e.g. chickenpox viruses) can be life-threatening in immunosuppressed patients. In order to avoid infections, various preventive measures (e.g. vaccination or treatment with antiviral drugs) are therefore taken during cancer therapy.

substances that the organism needs for vital functions, some of which cannot be produced by the organism itself or cannot be produced in sufficient quantities and must therefore be ingested regularly with food;
Example / Relevance Pediatrics: in the context of cancer or its treatment, vitamin deficiency may occur due to reduced food intake, which must be remedied by appropriate measures (e.g. enteral or parenteral nutrition).